Anpassungsstrategien an Klimawandelfolgen für den Obstbau im Mittelmeerklima – Wird der Obstbau zum Klimaschützer?


The final meeting of the Adapt2Clima EU project attracted nearly 160 participants involved in climate change in Heraklion in June 2019. The meeting covered modelling, risk analysis and vulnerability of the Mediterranean regions with respect to agriculture: The weather at flowering was identified as one of the prevailing hot spots, when flower pollination is either hampered by cold-wet weather preventing honeybees from flying or pollen sticking together in hot weather and storms with heavy rainfall during the summer and fruit development like on Skopelos in August 2015 or in Imathia in 2017/8. Mountainous areas such as Imathia and Pella in Macedonia and Pilion in Northeast Greece were identified as potentially climate resilient areas for fruit growing in the future based on the following resilience criteria: a) sufficient chilling in winter, b) low risk of a late frost, c) access to water and d) heat resilience. Grapevine cultivation is most affected by climate change, followed by tomato and then olive—in order of their water requirement and sensitivity to heat and drought The following adaption strategies against climate change were suggested for growing fruit in this region:1) securing water reservoirs; 2) regulation of water rights; 3) implementing water saving measures such as drip irrigation, deficit irrigation, partial root zone drying or no irrigation; 4) varieties with efficient water use (WUE); 5) extensive low plant/tree density; 6) reduction in evapotranspiration e.g. by shading using nets; 7) zero tillage; 8) grassed alleyways or cover crops (during winter); 9) in olive, mulching with shredded tree pruning residues; and 10) use of mill waste in the orchard; and 11) in grape, vineyard translocation towards to North and/or upwards into colder hillsides. Some of these measures represent a break with regional fruit growing traditions, where ploughing fields and particularly alleyways of olive orchards and burning pruned wood were an established practice and date back to a time, when wood shredder were largely unknown or uncommon; the great efforts in the med towards a combined fruit production with CO2 sequestration, however, are promising.